Definitions of terms

Measurement – is the process of assigning a quantitative value (numerical) to a students attainment in a given area of learning e.g. 64%

Evaluation refers to the process of assigning a qualitative value to a students attainment in a given area of learning e.g. C+.

Types of Evaluation

There are three types
Formative evaluation
Summative evaluation
Formative Evaluation
It is the progressive assessment of the success with which a program is being implemented. It shows whether learning objectives are being achieved.
It is done with a small group of people to “test run” various aspects of instructional materials.
It is typically conducted during the development or improvement of a program and it is conducted more than once.
The purpose of formative evaluation is to validate or ensure that the goals of the instruction are being achieved and to improve the instruction, if necessary, by means of identification and subsequent remediation of problematic aspects.
Formative evaluation is research-oriented.
Formative evaluation provides information on the product’s efficacy (its ability to do what it was designed to do).

Summative Evaluation

Summative evaluation is a method of judging the worth of a program at the end of the program activities. The focus is on the outcome.
It is typically quantitative and uses numeric scores or letter grades to assess learner achievement.
It is action-oriented. That is, on the basis of the findings, the programme can be adopted entirely, modified or abandoned altogether.


It is the process by which the quality of an individuals work or performance is judged.
It is carried out through observations of pupils at work or by various kinds of tests given periodically.
When practiced as an ongoing process, such assessment is called continuous assessment.

Types of Assessment

Normative Assessment/Testing
It is also called Norm-referenced assessment/test. It is where the quality of the grade depends on the average (norms) performance i.e. an individuals score is judged in relation to how good the overall performance is or was.
It is not measured against defined criteria but is relative to the student body undertaking the assessment i.e. it will tell you how a child compares to similar children on a given set of skills and knowledge.
The IQ test is the best known example of norm-referenced assessment. Many entrance tests (to prestigious schools or universities) are norm-referenced e.g. KCPE or KCSE.
It is a way of comparing students implying that standards may vary from year to year, depending on the quality of the cohort.


It does not enforce any expectation of what all students should know or be able to do other than what students can actually demonstrate.
Present levels of performance and inequity are taken as fact but not as defects to be removed by a redesigned system.
Aims of student performance are not raised every year until all are proficient. Scores are not required to show continuous improvement.


It cannot measure progress of the population of a whole, only where individuals fall within the whole.
It does not set what an individual should profess to prove a mastery of a skill being tested but rather bases on the set norm.
It judges set benchmarks around items of varying difficulty without considering the ability level or age of the examinees.
The difficulty level of items that determine the levels passing vary from year to year.

Criterion Assessment
It is where a decision is made as to whether a pupil has actually achieved specified level of learning regardless of the performance of other pupils.
Here, the criterion or level of achievement which warrants a mastery of certain skills is set in advance. It is not flexible.
Criterion-referenced assessment is often, but not always, used to establish a persons competence in doing something e.g. the driving test, when learner drivers are measured against a range of explicit criteria.
It tells where the person stands in some population of persons who have taken the test.
Most criterion-referenced tests involve a cut score, where the examinee passes if their score exceeds the cut score and fails if it does not (often called a mastery test).
However, not all criterion-referenced tests have a cut score, and the score can simply refer to a person’s standing on the subject domain.


Many criterion-referenced tests are high-stakes tests since results of the test have serious implications for the individual examinee.
Criterion referenced tests are standard-based assessments where students are assessed with regards to set standards that define what they “should” know.


They can be described as, “you lose a lot if you fail to pass e.g. licensure testing where the test must be passed in order to progress.
Some tests set a standard that have failed 50 to 80 percent of students at the outset, a higher, not lower failure rate than is possible with standard definition of 50 percent falling below average.

Diagnostic Assessment
It is the process of finding out the exact nature of a persons problem or difficulties. In education, the aim is to give relevant remedial teaching to those who deserve it.

Read also

Components, Purpose, Nature, Origin and importance of Ethics of Teaching in instruction


1.The concept of the teacher(who is a teacher?)
2.Obligations of a teacher (performance in class, society and school).
-proper time management
-ready and organized for duty.
-learners expectation that the teacher will change behavior.
-focus on expectations from the school administration.
-expectations from the society that a teacher should be a leader and role model.
-a teacher should be prepared to teach anytime.
-be creative and come with new ideas
Ideally the obligation of the teachers is creativeness .
-available to provide services when needed.
Respect work and authority at all times.
3.Socializing and interaction of the teacher (between learners , members of the staff and society members)
Among the areas of interest include:
-readiness to work anywhere with anyone.
-a teacher should have interest in all people.
-a teacher is expected to maintain reasonable distance reasonable social, professional and academic distance between themselves and learners.
-teachers should carry themselves around with decorum and avoid embarrassing others or themselves, avoid shameful situations, avoid temper.

  1. The person of the teacher (conducts of the teacher, respectful to learners and members of staff).
    5.Code of dressing – decent dressing and well groomed.
  2. The language of a teacher (the teacher should use proper language).

1.To make teaching profession a unique course, to be a mentoring profession which has intention of creating a desired community in education and the society hence facilitating transformation and modernization of the society. And be above other professions.

  1. To prepare a teacher to have unique qualities only found on teaching profession eg. Integrity, humility, responsibility,
  2. To bring about integration of different perspectives of teaching.
    4.To prepare teacher with legal framework of the teaching profession.
  3. It is through ethics of teaching that we have innovations in teaching.

It is a course that is social, professional, technical and academic. It is dynamic as it responds to development in education and society.
Are the determinants of the quality of teaching hence combinations the learners capacity.
Ethics of teaching promotes the image of a teacher and teaching Profession.
Ethics ensure that teaching is done in a conducive environment.


  1. Cultural practices especially related to socialization.
  2. Teacher education programme especially teacher preparation where professional teaching concerning education are articulated.
  3. Teaching experience where creative and innovative teachers are able to develop and pick up the best product of teaching.
  4. Directives and guidance from relevant education authorities concerning education and conduct of teaching.
  5. Development in education (research, emerging perspectives in education).
  6. Disasters and crises in the society. The population growth, the leaner characters etc.


  1. Development of the learner and the society – ethics of teaching are the vehicles of individual learners and society, ethics promote initiative, creativity and innovativeness of learners which promote national development.
  2. Development of conducive learning environment – ethics establish teacher-student relationship hence promotes learning and enable the teacher to impart required information to the learners and share his experiences with the learner.
  3. Inculcation of emerging trends in learners in the learners – ethics provide opportunities of adapting to and adoption of innovation in teaching such as learner centered approach and democracy.
    4 . Ethics of teaching are supposed to be instruments not only for modernizing instructional technology but also promoting quality and equity in the learning.
    5 . Promotion of both the image of teacher and the profession.
  4. Integration of the nature of ethics of teaching promotes integration of the elements of instructional programmes.
  5. The role of the ethics of teaching- the use of the ethics of teaching is an expectation in instruction, if ethics are NOT observed eg respect to learners, and stake holders, There will be poor learning outcome.
  6. The development of creativity and innovativeness of learners – use of ethics provides the teacher and learner with opportunity to discover for themselves and their potential in instructional programme.

Ethics of teaching and Teaching-Learning process

Should be well trained in professional skills and academic qualification.
mature and able to guide and counsel learners, responsible.
knowledgeable and well informed in teaching and general knowledge.
a teacher must have managerial and leadership skills so as to mobilize resources for teaching.
properly prepared to guide and counsel, mentor, role model and nest example in the society.
Innovative through creation of unique things and situations for instruction.

Teacher image – how teachers view themselves in the public and what others consider a teacher to be

performance of the teacher – to depict image of a teacher they must conduct their duties completely according to guidelines and attributes. This makes leaners respect him and the profession. Respects what the teacher stands for in the society and his profession.
Personality of the teacher – the teacher is expected to be responsible for all their actions (should be decisive) impression the teacher makes with those he interacts with.
Integrity of the teacher – teachers are expected to conduct themselves respectfully,honorably, dignity, which increase esteem in the teacher.
Staunch proponents of teaching profession-as a teacher you are expected to demonstrate and adhere to ethics of teaching and be seen as a strong supporter of the profession.

  • Promote opportunities for learning efficiently.
  • Creates and encourages teacher learner relationship.
  • Facilitates development of talents as learners can express themselves freely.
  • Provides wide range of learning opportunities through social, educational, technical demonstrations.
  • Introduces new perspectives to learning.
  • Links the learner to outside environment ie illustration by the teacher from the environment.
  • Promotes personality of learner as well as the teacher’s(confidence and objectivity) honesty and commitment.
  • Produces responsible and dignified individuals in the society.

-Dignify teaching profession. They also give teaching profession recognition and treats it as a special career in the society. Recent studies show that teaching is not a popular career.
*teaching is a stepping stone, if you can teach you can do anything..
-wide spread of untrained teachers has depicted teaching as open door career.
-casual treatment of teacher education.
Upcoming careers seem lucrative.
Existing schemes of service of teachers is not attractive.
-poor quality teacher education programme
-refugees in the profession.

Role of ethics of teaching in improving the teaching profession image.
1 . Gives teaching profession a special status among other careers, expected principles and practices in the profession are unique, technical and greatly social. It’s through ethics that these attributes can be practiced.

  1. They draw attention of general public to the potential of preparing and creating desired society. This course prepares the prospective teacher on how to create the desired society.
  2. Through performance of serving teachers the society is likely to recognize the role of the teacher and the profession.
  3. Teaching provides input for ethics.
  4. Ethics prepare a teacher professionally hence boosting the image of the profession